Technical Learning

References & Terms

2-Wire RTD – The simplest resistance thermometer configuration uses two wires. It is only used when high accuracy is not required, as the resistance of the connecting wires is added to that of the sensor, leading to errors of measurement. This configuration allows use of 100Â meters of cable. This applies equally to balanced bridge and fixed bridge system.

3-Wire RTD – In order to minimize the effects of the lead resistances, a three-wire configuration can be used. Using this method the two leads to the sensor are on adjoining arms. There is a lead resistance in each arm of the bridge so that the resistance is cancelled out, so long as the two lead resistances are accurately the same.

4-Wire RTD – The four-wire resistance thermometer configuration increases the accuracy and reliability of the resistance being measured: the resistance error due to lead wire resistance is zero. In the diagram above a standard two-terminal RTD is used with another pair of wires to form an additional loop that cancels out the lead resistance.

Accessories – Additional products used for temperature sensing.

Armored – Armor cable protects the leads of Thermocouples types E, J, K, N & T. Metal sheaths made to your required length.

Autoclave – Autoclave thermocouples are designed to withstand the harsh environment of an autoclave. They are ideally suited for food applications where steam wash down is necessary.

Averaging Sensor – Averaging sensors measure the temperature over the entire sheath length to provide an average temperature measurement of the cross sectional area of air ducts, room gradient temperatures, and other low temperature averaging applications.

Connection HeadTypically utilized in an industrial environment to help protect the probe from harsh conditions.

Embedment – Bearing sensors are miniature sensors installed in or beneath the babbitt layer of the bearing shoe. The sensors monitor the metal temperature- the most reliable indicator of bearing condition- to give early warning of oil film breakdown.

Field Adjustable Sensor – Field Adjustable Sensors are ideal for applications involving various sheath lengths that are best determined on site, rather than on an engineering drawing.

Flex Armor – Flex armor temperature sensors are commonly used in extruder and plastic processing and bearing industries.

Handheld Thermocouple – Versatile thermocouples commonly used for sanitary service requirements. Handles are available in CPVC, Delrin, Virgin Teflon and Stainless Steel.

High-Temperature Thermocouple – Ultra-high temperatures to over 4,200°F with conduit head attached available in various sheath materials.

HVAC – Our HVAC assemblies are made for easy installation, high reliability, and compatibility with most building automation systems.

Magnet Mount – Magnet Mount Thermocouples can be utilized on any ferrous metals as an easy means to measure surface temperature of an object. They are available in J, K, E, T calibrations.

Multi-Point – Probes consist of several smaller diameter thermocouples placed inside a single outer sheath. They are best suited for profiling the temperature at various points along a single axis.

Overbraided – Incorporate high temperature ceramic insulation with inconel overbraid thermocouple wires to create a flexible, abrasion resistant thermocouple.

Penetration Thermocouple – Penetration Thermocouple probes are utilized when an application requires insertion into a soft, medium, or semi-solid media to allow for best possible internal temperature response.

Pierce Probe – Piercing probe temperature sensor is manufactured with heavy wall tubing to provide support for production line handling and a spring relief.

Platinum Thermometer – Temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. As they are almost invariably made of platinum, they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600°C, due to higher accuracy and repeatability.

PT100 – PT100 sensors offer excellent accuracy over a wide temperature range (from -200 to +850 C).

PT1000 – The Pt1000 has 1000 ohms resistance at 0 C. These sensors are normally fitted into some type of protective sheath or mounting to form a probe.

Replacement – The Flexible lead wire (NB1) replacement probe is ideal for field installation with existing protection heads or for extending leads to remote locations. Flexible leads prevent breakage in hard to wire situations.

RTDs – Temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance some materials with changing temperature.


PT1000 – The Pt1000 has 1000 ohms resistance at 0 C. These sensors are normally fitted into some type of protective sheath or mounting to form a probe.

Sanitary – A sanitary system accepted practices pertain to the sanitation aspects of equipment used to produce frozen desserts, egg, milk, cottage cheese, and similar food and dairy products. Included are Culinary Steam, Boiler Feed Water, Heat Exchangers, Transfer Station, Silo Tank, Atmospheric Pasteurizers, Pipeline Milking Systems and Feed Production.

Screw In – Also known as, Pipe Plug Probes are ideal for vessel applications, pressurized containers and applications requiring mounting in a NPT orifice for fixed readings. Pipe probes are available in J, K, T, E calibration as well as grounded, ungrounded, or exposed junction termination.

Signal Conditioners – A signal conditioner is a device that converts one type of electronic signal into a another type of signal. Its primary use is to convert a signal that may be difficult to read by conventional instrumentation into a more easily read format. In performing this conversion a number of functions may take place.

Spring Loaded – Spring-Loaded Thermocouples are designed to measure the surface temperatures of moving or stationary walls by direct contact. The sensing tip is spring-loaded to maintain contact even if the wall is moving. Applications include bearings, rotating shafts, printed circuit boards, molding machines, plates, etc. Available in models as small as 3/4″ overall length. Thermocouple types include ANSI Types J, K, E and T.

Surface Mount – Surfacemount Thermocouple sensors are designed for use in a variety of applications. Our extensive experience in mounting sensors to precision sheet metal stampings provides efficiency to your process by having us perform this initial assembly step. The product shown is a Pt 100 ohm, RTD mounted with high temperature ceramic cement and spliced to 12” of lead wire.

Temperature Elements – RTD elements are used to manufacture temperature sensors. A resistance element is the temperature sensing component at the heart of an RTD or resistance thermometer.

Thermocouples – Thermocouple assembly, types E, J, K, N & T with general purpose conduit head and metal sheath with mounting threads.

Thermowells – Thermowells are pressure-tight receptacles that extend the life of a temperature in environments where the sensor is not chemically compatible with the process media or the sensor does not have the mechanical strength to withstand the process flow or pressure. Thermowells also facilitate removing, changing, checking or replacing sensors without draining the process system.

Thin Film – Thin film elements are mass produced by automated equiptment which deposites a layer of platinum onto a ceramic substrate and uses a layer photolithography to etch an electrical current path corresponding to the required value of ohms. The elements are smaller than traditional wire and as a result have a faster response time and fit more applications, while reducing user costs at the same time.

Transition Joint – Transition Joint Thermocouples are typically made up of a metal sheathed thermocouple of a given diameter which “transitions” to a lead wire via a slightly larger cylindrical barrel. This barrel transition is typically made of metal or thermoplastic.

Tube Skin/Weld Pad – Weld Pad Sensors are commonly used in Petro-Chemical industries. The sensors are welded or clamped to measure process temperature and are available in 3 basic configuration. Theses configurations can be manufactured as RTDs, Thermocouples, Thermisters & Direct to Digital Semi Conductor Sensors, based on the temperature limitations and specific process requirements.